古琴,原称,又称瑶琴玉琴五弦琴七弦琴,是中国拨弦乐器,有三千年以上历史,属于八音中的丝。古琴音域宽广,音色深沉,余音悠远。自古“琴”为其特指,於1920年代起为了與钢琴区别而改称古琴,本文统称琴。初为五弦,汉朝起定制为七弦,且有标志音律的13個,亦為礼器和乐律法器

古琴艺术
中华人民共和国
国家级非物质文化遗产
申报地区或单位 中国艺术研究院
分类 传统音乐
序号 65
编号项目 II-34
登录 2006年

琴是中国古代文化地位最崇高的乐器[2]有“士無故不撤琴瑟”[3]和“左琴右书”[4]之说。位列“琴棋书画”四艺之首,被文人视为高雅的代表,亦为文人吟唱时的伴奏乐器,自古以来一直是许多文人必备的知识和必修的科目。[5]伯牙子期以“高山流水”而成知音的故事流传至今;[6]琴臺被视为友谊的象征。大量诗词文赋中有琴的身影。现存琴曲3360多首,琴谱130多部,[7]琴歌300首。主要流传范围是汉文化圈国家和地区,如中国朝鲜日本东南亚,而欧洲美洲也有琴人組織的琴社

摘自 维基百科,全文阅读链接

The guqin ([kùtɕʰǐn] (About this soundlisten)Chinese古琴) is a plucked seven-string Chinese musical instrument of the zither family. It has been played since ancient times, and has traditionally been favoured by scholars and literati as an instrument of great subtlety and refinement, as highlighted by the quote “a gentle man does not part with his qin or se without good reason,”[1] as well as being associated with the ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius. It is sometimes referred to by the Chinese as “the father of Chinese music” or “the instrument of the sages”. The guqin is not to be confused with the guzheng, another Chinese long zither also without frets, but with moveable bridges under each string.

Traditionally, the instrument was simply referred to as the “qin” (琴)[2] but by the twentieth century the term had come to be applied to many other musical instruments as well: the yangqin hammered dulcimer, the huqin family of bowed string instruments, and the Western piano are examples of this usage. The prefix “gu-” (古; meaning “ancient”) was later added for clarification. Thus, the instrument is called “guqin” today. It can also be called qixian-qin (七絃琴; lit. “seven-stringed zither”). Because Robert Hans van Gulik‘s book about the qin is called The Lore of the Chinese Lute, the guqin is sometimes inaccurately called a lute.[3] Other incorrect classifications, mainly from music compact discs, include “harp” or “table-harp”.

The guqin is a very quiet instrument, with a range of about four octaves, and its open strings are tuned in the bass register. Its lowest pitch is about two octaves below middle C, or the lowest note on the cello. Sounds are produced by plucking open strings, stopped strings, and harmonics. The use of glissando—sliding tones—gives it a sound reminiscent of a pizzicato cello, fretless double bass or a slide guitar. The qin is also capable of many harmonics, of which 91 are most commonly used and indicated by the dotted positions. By tradition the qin originally had five strings, but ancient qin-like instruments with 10 or more strings have been found. The modern form has been standardized for about two millennia.

There are more than 3360 pieces of Guqin music existed now. On November 7, 2003, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee announced that the Chinese Guqin was selected as the World Cultural Heritage Centre. In 2006, Guqin was listed in the List of National Non-material Cultural Heritage in China.

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